What is Composite?
The materials formed by combining two or more materials of same or different groups at the macro level, in order to combine the best properties together or to create new characteristic are called “composite materials”.
In other words, composite material are materials that have better mechanical properties which are formed by combining two or more materials with different physical and chemical properties. In this context, composite materials are far superior to the properties of their constituent materials.
Today, the production of composite materials, which have a very widespread use in almost every field from shipbuilding to building construction, from household appliances production to space technology, seems to have cost the last few hundred years, but its first examples are based on very old ages. One of the best examples of this is brick material. Straw and ivy branches introduced into clay mud in adobe production increase the resistance of the material both during production and during usage.
Composite materials transpire from a combination of reinforcing elements (e.g., fibers) and carrier matrices. These components do not dissolve or blend with each other. For example; The fibers are reinforcing elements of the composite structure and provide mechanical strength. The matrix is the main structure which keeps the fibers together, indirectly affects the formation of the mechanical structure by providing tension transfer between the fibers, and protects the fibers from physical and chemical external effects, resulting in a composite structure.
Today, most used composite material combinations in industrial applications are, glass fiber + polyester, carbon fiber + epoxy and aramid fiber + epoxy combinations.
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The main superior properties of all composite materials are as follows;